This course will focus on five transitional societies in Africa and the Middle East emerging (or in the midst of) from national nightmares: South Africa, Rwanda; the DRC; Egypt and Syria. Considering the political realities in each country, this course will explore the opportunities and limitations of the different forums, and the dilemmas they present for enforcement; for sovereignty; for justice; for peace and for democracy. The course will briefly look at the structure and functions of the International Criminal Court, and its potential to be an instrument for ensuring global accountability for the most serious crimes. The course will briefly look at the structure, role and functions of the UNO in facilitating the vision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights after World War II. We will carefully explore the policy and moral complexities of the laws of war and peace.