The Michigan Model
of World Production and Trade

the Michigan Brown-Deardorff-Stern (BDS)
Imperfectly Competitive Model

The following are the papers that have been written based upon the Michigan BDS Model. References are to the most recent versions. Working-paper versions of some of them are available for viewing or downloading in the Adobe .pdf format, which is available using the free Adobe Acrobat software. Click on PDF. Papers use different versions of the model, including different groupings of countries. To get more details on the version used for a particular paper, click on "Version" after the paper. Versions are identified by names that are listed and explained in Versions.

Papers based on the 8-Country BDS Model

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