If the hacks can be tied back to Moscow, they are just the latest in a string of significant and aggressive cyber operations perpetrated by elements of the Russian government against local, state, and federal governments and corporate entities. “We clearly have not imposed the right level of costs,” says Javed Ali.
“Proportional response, whatever that is, loses some of its value if people don’t know that something has happened,” he says. “Even if you’re able to conduct the operation and achieve the effects that you want, are we then willing to publicly acknowledge them and then incur the consequences?”
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